Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith?

Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith? The concept of the “age of accountability” is that children are not held accountable by the Lord God for their sins until they reach a certain age and that, if a child happens to die before reaching the “age of accountability,” that child will, by the grace and mercy of the Lord God, be granted entrance into heaven. Is the age of accountability Biblical? Is there such a thing as an “age of innocence”? Does the Bible support any of these claims in any way? What are we as Christians supposed to know about these pertinent matters? Often omitted in most discussions regarding the age of accountability is the pertinent fact that children, no matter how young, are not “innocent” in the sense of being sinless. Inherited sin is that which is passed on from our parents.
The Bible explicitly tells us that, even if an infant or child has not committed a personal sin, all people, including infants and children, are guilty before God because of inherited and imputed sin.
Romans 3:23 says, “for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

In Psalm 51:5, David wrote, “Surely I was sinful at birth, sinful from the time my mother conceived me.” Notice that David recognized the fact that even at conception he was a sinner. The sad fact that infants sometimes die demonstrates that even infants are impacted by Adam’s sin (The Fall of Man), since physical and spiritual death were the results of Adam’s original sin. Everyone, infant or adult, stands guilty before God; each person has offended the holiness of the Lord God. And as such, the only way God can be just and at the same time declare a person righteous is for that person to have received forgiveness by faith in Christ (Matthew 9:6). Behold, Christ is the only way. In John 14:6, Jesus answered, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.” In addition, Peter states in Acts 4:12, “Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to mankind by which we must be saved.”

Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith?

The Bible explicitly tells us that salvation comes through Jesus Christ. As such, one may ask, what about babies and young children who never attain the ability to make the personal choice to believe in Christ? Some believe that those who die before reaching the age of intellectual or moral accountability are “automatically” saved by God’s grace in Christ. The reasoning is that, if someone is truly incapable of making a decision for or against Christ, then the person in question is extended the Lord God’s mercy. Charles Spurgeon held this view: “I rejoice to know that the souls of all infants, as soon as they die, speed their way to Paradise. Think what a multitude there is of them!” (C. H. Spurgeon’s Autobiography, Vol. 1, ch. XVI, “A Defence of Calvinism,” Passmore and Alabaster, 1897, p. 175).

Brethren, the Bible does not directly address an age of accountability. And as such, we do not know at what age or at what point in one’s life God would deem them “old enough to know better.” But we can see clearly the evidence of God’s heart for children displayed in Jesus. Also, one verse that may indirectly be addressing this issue is Romans 1:20, “For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities—his eternal power and divine nature—have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse.” According to this Scripture, mankind’s guilt before God is based partly on a rejection of what can be “clearly seen” of God’s existence, eternality, and power. So, what about children who have no mature faculty for “clear seeing” or reasoning about God – wouldn’t their natural incapacity to observe and reason excuse them from judgment?

At What Age Are We Accountable?

We’ll preface this discussion by stating that there is no definitive age explicitly written in Scripture. The ages that are commonly adopted are born out of verses that insinuate them and tradition. Most people will say that the age of accountability is at 12 or 13. Their reasoning for this is twofold. The first reason is that Jesus Christ was twelve (12) when he went to the Temple with his family at the Feast of Passover (Luke 2:41-42). While he was there, he began teaching and as such demonstrated his understanding of right and wrong. The second reason is that according to Jewish custom, at the age of 13, a male enters manhood. This is celebrated with a Bar Mitzvah. Other inquiries have led some to believe that twenty is the poignant number. At this age, males are enlisted in the Israeli army. Still, others believe that the age of accountability is when a child recognizes their own nakedness. This thought would refer to the Fall of Man in the Garden of Eden in Genesis 3. Although the Bible does not state a specific age at which we become accountable, it clearly teaches us how we can come to the saving knowledge of Jesus Christ. When we re

Having this in mind, we should also consider that Christ’s death is presented as sufficient for all of mankind. 1 John 2:2 says Jesus is “the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world.” This verse is clear that Jesus’ death was sufficient payment for all sins, not only the sins of those who come to him in faith. The fact that Christ’s death was sufficient for all sin would likely allow at least the possibility of God’s applying that payment to those who were never capable of believing. Some see a link between the age of accountability and the covenant relationship between the nation of Israel and the Lord. In that dispensation, a male child was brought into the covenant through circumcision, which was totally out of his control, being performed on the eighth day after birth. No other requirement was imposed on him (Exodus 12:48–50; Leviticus 12:3).

What Happens to Children Who Never Get the Chance to Accept Christ?

Some Christians believe that children who are taken at an early age go straight to heaven while others believe God judges them. The passage cited most often in support of an age of accountability is 2 Samuel 12:21–23. The context is that King David committed adultery with Bathsheba, with a resulting pregnancy. The prophet Nathan was sent by the Lord to inform David that, because of his sin, the child born to him will die. David responded by grieving and praying for the child. But once the child was taken, David’s mourning ended. David’s servants were surprised to hear this. They said to kind David, “What is this thing that you have done? While the child was alive, you fasted and wept; but when the child died, you arose and ate food.” David’s response was, “While the child was still alive, I fasted and wept; for I said, ‘Who knows, the Lord may be gracious to me, that the child may live.’ But now he has died; why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not return to me.” Notice that David’s words might indicate that infants who die are safe in the Lord. David could have simply been referring to the fact that his child was in the grave, but he seemed to be comforted by the knowledge. The peace he felt suggests that he believed he would see his son again (probably in heaven).

In Matthew 19:26, Jesus looked at them and said, “With man this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.” Conclusively, it is possible that the Lord God applies Christ’s payment for sin to young children and others incapable of faith, but the Bible does not specifically say that He does this. Therefore, this is a subject about which we should not be dogmatic. Behold, God’s extending grace to children who do not get the chance to accept Christ whether through death or physical and mental disabilities would seem consistent with His character. As such, we are more likely to support the position that God does apply Christ’s payment for sin to babies and those who are mentally handicapped since they are incapable of understanding their sinful state and their need for the Savior. Again, we cannot be dogmatic. What we are certain of is the fact that the Lord God is loving, merciful, holy, just, and gracious. As such, whatever the Lord God does is good and right, and He loves children. In Matthew 19:14, Jesus said, “Let the little children come to me, and do not hinder them, for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these.”
Matthew 21:15-16 says, But when the chief priests and the teachers of the law saw the wonderful things he did and the children shouting in the temple courts, “Hosanna to the Son of David,” they were indignant. “Do you hear what these children are saying?” they asked him. “Yes,” replied Jesus, “have you never read, “‘From the lips of children and infants you, Lord, have called forth your praise’?”
Matthew 18:3-5 says, And he said: “Truly I tell you, unless you change and become like little children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. Therefore, whoever takes the lowly position of this child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. And whoever welcomes one such child in my name welcomes me.
Matthew 18:10 says, “See that you do not despise one of these little ones. For I tell you that their angels in heaven always see the face of my Father in heaven”

Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith?

James 4:17 – “So whoever knows the right thing to do and fails to do it, for him it is sin.”

Romans 7:9 – “For I was alive without the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.”

Deuteronomy 1:39 – “And as for your little ones, who you said would become a prey, and your children, who today have no knowledge of good or evil, they shall go in there. And to them I will give it, and they shall possess it.

Matthew 19:14But Jesus said, “Let the little children come to me and do not hinder them, for to such belongs the kingdom of heaven.”

Isaiah 7:16 – “For before the boy knows how to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land whose two kings you dread will be deserted.

Romans 14:12 – “So then each of us will give an account of himself to God.

Proverbs 20:11 – “Even a child makes himself known by his acts, by whether his conduct is pure and upright.

Matthew 18:3And said, “Truly, I say to you, unless you turn and become like children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.

Ezekiel 18:20 – “The soul who sins shall die. The son shall not suffer for the iniquity of the father, nor the father suffer for the iniquity of the son. The righteousness of the righteous shall be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon himself.

ALSO READ  Examples Of Acts Of Kindness And Goodness In The Bible

Group 1 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Psalm 51:5 – “Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me.

2 Samuel 12:23 – “But now he is dead. Why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not return to me.”

Psalm 58:3 – “The wicked are estranged from the womb; they go astray from birth, speaking lies.”

1 Corinthians 7:14 – “For the unbelieving husband is made holy because of his wife, and the unbelieving wife is made holy because of her husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean, but as it is, they are holy.

Romans 3:23 – “For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God,

Luke 2:42-46 – “And when he was twelve years old, they went up according to custom. And when the feast was ended, as they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. His parents did not know it, but supposing him to be in the group they went a day’s journey, but then they began to search for him among their relatives and acquaintances, and when they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem, searching for him. After three days they found him in the temple, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions.

Group 2 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Exodus 30:14 – “Everyone who is numbered in the census, from twenty years old and upward, shall give the Lord’s offering.

Numbers 14:28-30 – “Say to them, ‘As I live, declares the Lord, what you have said in my hearing I will do to you: your dead bodies shall fall in this wilderness, and of all your number, listed in the census from twenty years old and upward, who have grumbled against me, not one shall come into the land where I swore that I would make you dwell, except Caleb the son of Jephunneh and Joshua the son of Nun.

Romans 6:23 – “For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Romans 7:9-11 – “I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin came alive and I died. The very commandment that promised life proved to be death to me. For sin, seizing an opportunity through the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me.

2 Samuel 12:22-23He said, “While the child was still alive, I fasted and wept, for I said, ‘Who knows whether the Lord will be gracious to me, that the child may live?’ But now he is dead. Why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not return to me.”

Group 3 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Romans 7:9 – “I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin came alive and I died.

1 John 2:2 – “He is the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only but also for the sins of the whole world.

2 Samuel 12:21-23Then his servants said to him, “What is this thing that you have done? You fasted and wept for the child while he was alive; but when the child died, you arose and ate food.” He said, “While the child was still alive, I fasted and wept, for I said, ‘Who knows whether the Lord will be gracious to me, that the child may live?’ But now he is dead. Why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not return to me.”

John 3:16 – “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.

Numbers 14:29 – “Your dead bodies shall fall in this wilderness, and of all your number, listed in the census from twenty years old and upward, who have grumbled against me,

Matthew 18:10 – “See that you do not despise one of these little ones. For I tell you that in heaven their angels always see the face of my Father who is in heaven.

Romans 2:12 – “For all who have sinned without the law will also perish without the law, and all who have sinned under the law will be judged by the law.

Group 4 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Mark 10:14But when Jesus saw it, he was indignant and said to them, “Let the children come to me; do not hinder them, for to such belongs the kingdom of God.

John 14:6Jesus said to him, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”

Ephesians 2:8-9 – “For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast.

Romans 5:12-14 – “Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned— for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come.

Luke 1:15 – “For he will be great before the Lord. And he must not drink wine or strong drink, and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother’s womb.

1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 – “But we do not want you to be uninformed, brothers, about those who are asleep, that you may not grieve as others do who have no hope. For since we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so, through Jesus, God will bring with him those who have fallen asleep. For this we declare to you by a word from the Lord, that we who are alive, who are left until the coming of the Lord, will not precede those who have fallen asleep. For the Lord himself will descend from heaven with a cry of command, with the voice of an archangel, and with the sound of the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we will always be with the Lord. …

ALSO READ  What Does The Bible Say About Distribution Of Wealth

Group 5 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Ephesians 2:3 – “Among whom we all once lived in the passions of our flesh, carrying out the desires of the body and the mind, and were by nature children of wrath, like the rest of mankind.”

Romans 7:7 – “What then shall we say? That the law is sin? By no means! Yet if it had not been for the law, I would not have known sin. For I would not have known what it is to covet if the law had not said, “You shall not covet.”

James 5:16 – “Therefore, confess your sins to one another and pray for one another, that you may be healed. The prayer of a righteous person has great power as it is working.

Proverbs 27:17 – “Iron sharpens iron, and one man sharpens another.

Psalm 51:1-19 – “To the choirmaster. A Psalm of David, when Nathan the prophet went to him, after he had gone in to Bathsheba. Have mercy on me, O God, according to your steadfast love; according to your abundant mercy blot out my transgressions. Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin! For I know my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me. Against you, you only, have I sinned and done what is evil in your sight, so that you may be justified in your words and blameless in your judgment. Behold, I was brought forth in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me. …

Group 6 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

John 3:3Jesus answered him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.”

Romans 8:7 – “For the mind that is set on the flesh is hostile to God, for it does not submit to God’s law; indeed, it cannot.”

Romans 5:8 – “But God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.”

Romans 7:2 – “For a married woman is bound by law to her husband while he lives, but if her husband dies she is released from the law of marriage.”

Romans 9:15For he says to Moses, “I will have mercy on whom I have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”

Romans 10:14 – “How then will they call on him in whom they have not believed? And how are they to believe in him of whom they have never heard? And how are they to hear without someone preaching?

John 3:16-17 – “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him.

Group 7 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

John 9:41Jesus said to them, “If you were blind, you would have no guilt; but now that you say, ‘We see,’ your guilt remains.”

Isaiah 3:1-26 – “For behold, the Lord God of hosts is taking away from Jerusalem and from Judah support and supply, all support of bread, and all support of water; the mighty man and the soldier, the judge and the prophet, the diviner and the elder, the captain of fifty and the man of rank, the counselor and the skillful magician and the expert in charms. And I will make boys their princes, and infants shall rule over them. And the people will oppress one another, every one his fellow and every one his neighbor; the youth will be insolent to the elder, and the despised to the honorable. …

Romans 7:10 – “The very commandment that promised life proved to be death to me.

Revelation 1:1-20 – “The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John, who bore witness to the word of God and to the testimony of Jesus Christ, even to all that he saw. Blessed is the one who reads aloud the words of this prophecy, and blessed are those who hear, and who keep what is written in it, for the time is near. John to the seven churches that are in Asia: Grace to you and peace from him who is and who was and who is to come, and from the seven spirits who are before his throne, and from Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of kings on earth. To him who loves us and has freed us from our sins by his blood …

Group 8 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Luke 2:41-42 – “Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the Feast of the Passover. And when he was twelve years old, they went up according to custom.”

Revelation 21:27 – “But nothing unclean will ever enter it, nor anyone who does what is detestable or false, but only those who are written in the Lamb’s book of life.”

Psalm 51:4 – “Against you, you only, have I sinned and done what is evil in your sight, so that you may be justified in your words and blameless in your judgment.”

Genesis 1:1 – “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.”

Genesis 18:25 – “Far be it from you to do such a thing, to put the righteous to death with the wicked, so that the righteous fare as the wicked! Far be that from you! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do what is just?

Revelation 20:12 – “And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Then another book was opened, which is the book of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to what they had done.”

Ephesians 2:2 – “In which you once walked, following the course of this world, following the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that is now at work in the sons of disobedience—

Group 9 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Matthew 18:4 – “Whoever humbles himself like this child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven.

Romans 9:2 – “That I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart.

Romans 7:11 – “For sin, seizing an opportunity through the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me.”

Isaiah 3:2 – “The mighty man and the soldier, the judge and the prophet, the diviner and the elder,

Ephesians 1:5 – “He predestined us for adoption to himself as sons through Jesus Christ, according to the purpose of his will,

Ephesians 6:4 – “Fathers, do not provoke your children to anger, but bring them up in the discipline and instruction of the Lord.”

Ephesians 1:4 – “Even as he chose us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and blameless before him. In love

Ezekiel 18:1-32 – “The word of the Lord came to me: “What do you mean by repeating this proverb concerning the land of Israel, ‘The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children’s teeth are set on edge’? As I live, declares the Lord God, this proverb shall no more be used by you in Israel. Behold, all souls are mine; the soul of the father as well as the soul of the son is mine: the soul who sins shall die. “If a man is righteous and does what is just and right— …

ALSO READ  At What Age Are Children Responsible For Their Own Sins?

Group 10 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

John 3:2This man came to Jesus by night and said to him, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do unless God is with him.”

2 Samuel 12:13-23 – “David said to Nathan, “I have sinned against the Lord.” And Nathan said to David, “The Lord also has put away your sin; you shall not die. Nevertheless, because by this deed you have utterly scorned the Lord, the child who is born to you shall die.” Then Nathan went to his house. And the Lord afflicted the child that Uriah’s wife bore to David, and he became sick. David therefore sought God on behalf of the child. And David fasted and went in and lay all night on the ground. And the elders of his house stood beside him, to raise him from the ground, but he would not, nor did he eat food with them. …

1 Thessalonians 4:2 – “For you know what instructions we gave you through the Lord Jesus.”

Romans 5:2 – “Through him we have also obtained access by faith into this grace in which we stand, and we rejoice in hope of the glory of God.

Romans 1:19-20 – “For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse.

Romans 7:4 – “Likewise, my brothers, you also have died to the law through the body of Christ, so that you may belong to another, to him who has been raised from the dead, in order that we may bear fruit for God.

Group 11 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

John 1:9 – “The true light, which gives light to everyone, was coming into the world.

John 1:9 – “The true light, which gives light to everyone, was coming into the world.

Colossians 3:1-25 – “If then you have been raised with Christ, seek the things that are above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your minds on things that are above, not on things that are on earth. For you have died, and your life is hidden with Christ in God. When Christ who is your life appears, then you also will appear with him in glory. Put to death therefore what is earthly in you: sexual immorality, impurity, passion, evil desire, and covetousness, which is idolatry. …

Psalm 51:2 – “Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin!

2 Samuel 12:22 He said, “While the child was still alive, I fasted and wept, for I said, ‘Who knows whether the Lord will be gracious to me, that the child may live?’

Jonah 4:11 – “And should not I pity Nineveh, that great city, in which there are more than 120,000 persons who do not know their right hand from their left, and also much cattle?

Luke 1:3 – “It seemed good to me also, having followed all things closely for some time past, to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus,”

Group 12 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Romans 9:5 – “To them belong the patriarchs, and from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ, who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen.”

Matthew 20:8-16 – “And when evening came, the owner of the vineyard said to his foreman, ‘Call the laborers and pay them their wages, beginning with the last, up to the first.’ And when those hired about the eleventh hour came, each of them received a denarius. Now when those hired first came, they thought they would receive more, but each of them also received a denarius. And on receiving it they grumbled at the master of the house, saying, ‘These last worked only one hour, and you have made them equal to us who have borne the burden of the day and the scorching heat.’ …

Romans 7:5 – “For while we were living in the flesh, our sinful passions, aroused by the law, were at work in our members to bear fruit for death.

1 Kings 14:1-31 – “At that time Abijah the son of Jeroboam fell sick. And Jeroboam said to his wife, “Arise, and disguise yourself, that it not be known that you are the wife of Jeroboam, and go to Shiloh. Behold, Ahijah the prophet is there, who said of me that I should be king over this people. Take with you ten loaves, some cakes, and a jar of honey, and go to him. He will tell you what shall happen to the child.” Jeroboam’s wife did so. She arose and went to Shiloh and came to the house of Ahijah. Now Ahijah could not see, for his eyes were dim because of his age. And the Lord said to Ahijah, “Behold, the wife of Jeroboam is coming to inquire of you concerning her son, for he is sick. Thus and thus shall you say to her.” When she came, she pretended to be another woman. …

Group 13 – Is the Age of Accountability a Biblical Concept of Faith

Romans 7:5 – “For while we were living in the flesh, our sinful passions, aroused by the law, were at work in our members to bear fruit for death.”

Romans 9:5 – “To them belong the patriarchs, and from their race, according to the flesh, is the Christ, who is God over all, blessed forever. Amen.

Acts 14:17 – “Yet he did not leave himself without witness, for he did good by giving you rains from heaven and fruitful seasons, satisfying your hearts with food and gladness.

Romans 5:12 – “Therefore, just as sin came into the world through one man, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all sinned—

Genesis 1:5 – “God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day.”

Mark 10:5And Jesus said to them, “Because of your hardness of heart he wrote you this commandment.

Romans 1:20 – “For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse.”

Matthew 16:1-28 – “And the Pharisees and Sadducees came, and to test him they asked him to show them a sign from heaven. He answered them, “When it is evening, you say, ‘It will be fair weather, for the sky is red.’ And in the morning, ‘It will be stormy today, for the sky is red and threatening.’ You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you cannot interpret the signs of the times. An evil and adulterous generation seeks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah.” …

Also Read

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *