What Does The Bible Say About Administration

What Does The Bible Say About Administration?

What Does The Bible Say About Administration

What Does The Bible Say About Administration? The Bible says a lot about the spiritual gift of administration. Although sometimes overlooked, this spiritual gift is as important as the others. 1 Corinthians 12:28 says, “And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, helping, administrating, and various kinds of tongues.” Notice that 1 Corinthians 12:28 as well as Romans 12:8 both include the gift of administration in their lists of spiritual gifts. Looking at different major translations of the Bible, the spiritual gift of administration is called “administrating” in the ESV, “leadership” in the NLT, “governments” in the KJV, or “guidance” in the NIV. Administration is referred to as a “team gift” since it thrives when called upon to organize people to accomplish an objective.

The Lord God gives some people the spiritual gift of administration so that they can use it to help organize those with other gifts and keep the Church functioning at its optimum level. As a matter of fact, the Lord God has given every true believer in Christ at least one spiritual gift to use in His service in order to bring glory to His Holy Name (1 Corinthians 12:7). Likewise, these spiritual gifts are given to edify or build up, the church (1 Corinthians 14:12). It’s important to understand that these gifts are not for building up our egos but to serve the Lord God with more power and effectiveness. Some people operate in many spiritual gifts. For example, people with pastoral/shepherding gifts may also possess the gift of administration. Note that it’s the Holy Spirit who distributes the gifts “just as he determines” (1 Corinthians 12:11).

What Does The Bible Say About Administration?

Administrators are leaders. In cases where volunteers are needed to organize events, administrators are often heading. Each church’s leadership team needs at least one person with the gift of administration to effectively organize people and programs. Without effective leadership, great ideas can dissolve into chaos. In most cases, pastoral teams consist of one administrator and others with the gifts of mercy and shepherding. With this in mind, wise leaders welcome and respect each and everyone’s gifts, allowing room for manifestations. In this way, the Lord balances these gifts for optimal service in bringing glory to His name. A magnificent, merciful pastor can possibly be very disorganized in his own life and needs a person with the gift of administration to handle the business affairs of the church while he concentrates on the emotional and spiritual needs of his flock.

In addition, administrators are also excellent delegators. They seem to sense who would effectively handle a project and don’t mind inviting people, and recruiting volunteers for the accomplishment of projects they strongly believe in. Based on their leadership styles or personalities, administrators tend to gravitate toward either programs or people. Extroverted administrators thrive when working with people. In working towards the accomplishment of their tasks, they often appoint leadership teams, effectively organize volunteers, and recruit those who need a little nudge to get involved in the project. On the other hand, introverted administrators tend to feel more comfortable behind the scenes, organizing calendars, and planning events that benefit the whole church. While extroverted administrators are more relational, introverted administrators are more project-oriented in their approach.

More facts

Have you ever wondered how churches grow to megachurches and how they are managed? Several pastors of megachurches have the gift of administration. They have the ability to lead as well as inspire other people to lead. This ability significantly contributes to the growth of their churches. However, a danger for pastors with the gift of administration is that it’s easy for them to slip into a competitive mindset especially when they start seeing rapid growth in the number of church members. Therefore, those with the gift of administration must never forget that the church is not a for-profit business. The church is a ministry that must operate in line with the teachings of Jesus Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit to accomplish what the Lord God wants.

Notice that administrators may be prone to adopting business strategies that they see working in other sectors of life. And as such, may appear successful while actually working in the flesh. Romans 8:8 says, “Those who are in the realm of the flesh cannot please God.” Nevertheless, the spiritual gift of administration is a valuable asset to the growth and establishment of the church. The Lord God wants His children to discover, develop, and make use of the different gifts that He has placed in them for the advancement of His Kingdom and His Glory. By engaging in ministries that utilize our gifts, we are bringing honor and credit to the Lord God who gave them (Romans 12:3-8).

What Does The Bible Say About Administration?

Titus 1:5 – “This is why I left you in Crete, so that you might put what remained into order, and appoint elders in every town as I directed you—

1 Corinthians 12:28 – “And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, helping, administrating, and various kinds of tongues.”

1 Timothy 5:17 – “Let the elders who rule well be considered worthy of double honor, especially those who labor in preaching and teaching.”

Ephesians 4:11 – “And he gave the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the shepherds and teachers,

1 Corinthians 14:40 – “But all things should be done decently and in order.

Deuteronomy 28:1-68 – “And if you faithfully obey the voice of the Lord your God, being careful to do all his commandments that I command you today, the Lord your God will set you high above all the nations of the earth. And all these blessings shall come upon you and overtake you, if you obey the voice of the Lord your God. Blessed shall you be in the city, and blessed shall you be in the field. Blessed shall be the fruit of your womb and the fruit of your ground and the fruit of your cattle, the increase of your herds and the young of your flock. Blessed shall be your basket and your kneading bowl. …

Group 1 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

2 Timothy 3:16-17 – “All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be competent, equipped for every good work.”

1 Corinthians 12:28-31 – “And God has appointed in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healing, helping, administrating, and various kinds of tongues. Are all apostles? Are all prophets? Are all teachers? Do all work miracles? Do all possess gifts of healing? Do all speak with tongues? Do all interpret? But earnestly desire the higher gifts. And I will show you a still more excellent way.

Acts 6:1-15 – “Now in these days when the disciples were increasing in number, a complaint by the Hellenists arose against the Hebrews because their widows were being neglected in the daily distribution. And the twelve summoned the full number of the disciples and said, “It is not right that we should give up preaching the word of God to serve tables. Therefore, brothers, pick out from among you seven men of good repute, full of the Spirit and of wisdom, whom we will appoint to this duty. But we will devote ourselves to prayer and to the ministry of the word.” And what they said pleased the whole gathering, and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolaus, a proselyte of Antioch. …

Group 2 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

1 Timothy 3:2 – “Therefore an overseer must be above reproach, the husband of one wife, sober-minded, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach,

Deuteronomy 28:47-48 – “Because you did not serve the Lord your God with joyfulness and gladness of heart, because of the abundance of all things, therefore you shall serve your enemies whom the Lord will send against you, in hunger and thirst, in nakedness, and lacking everything. And he will put a yoke of iron on your neck until he has destroyed you.

Hebrews 13:17 – “Obey your leaders and submit to them, for they are keeping watch over your souls, as those who will have to give an account. Let them do this with joy and not with groaning, for that would be of no advantage to you.”

1 Corinthians 12:7 – “To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good.”

1 Corinthians 12:1-31 – “Now concerning spiritual gifts, brothers, I do not want you to be uninformed. You know that when you were pagans you were led astray to mute idols, however you were led. Therefore I want you to understand that no one speaking in the Spirit of God ever says “Jesus is accursed!” and no one can say “Jesus is Lord” except in the Holy Spirit. Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; and there are varieties of service, but the same Lord; …

ALSO READ  Examples Of Accountability In The Bible

Group 3 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

1 Corinthians 12:5 – “And there are varieties of service, but the same Lord;

Romans 12:8 – “The one who exhorts, in his exhortation; the one who contributes, in generosity; the one who leads, with zeal; the one who does acts of mercy, with cheerfulness.”

Romans 8:28 – “And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose.”

Acts 13:1 – “Now there were in the church at Antioch prophets and teachers, Barnabas, Simeon who was called Niger, Lucius of Cyrene, Manaen a member of the court of Herod the tetrarch, and Saul.”

1 Peter 4:10 – “As each has received a gift, use it to serve one another, as good stewards of God’s varied grace:

1 Peter 5:1-4 – “So I exhort the elders among you, as a fellow elder and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, as well as a partaker in the glory that is going to be revealed: shepherd the flock of God that is among you, exercising oversight, not under compulsion, but willingly, as God would have you; not for shameful gain, but eagerly; not domineering over those in your charge, but being examples to the flock. And when the chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory.”

Group 4 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

Philippians 4:13 – “I can do all things through him who strengthens me.”

Isaiah 41:10 – “Fear not, for I am with you; be not dismayed, for I am your God; I will strengthen you, I will help you, I will uphold you with my righteous right hand.”

2 Corinthians 9:12 – “For the ministry of this service is not only supplying the needs of the saints but is also overflowing in many thanksgivings to God.”

Hebrews 13:7 – “Remember your leaders, those who spoke to you the word of God. Consider the outcome of their way of life, and imitate their faith.”

James 1:5 – “If any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask God, who gives generously to all without reproach, and it will be given him.”

Philippians 4:19 – “And my God will supply every need of yours according to his riches in glory in Christ Jesus.”

1 Corinthians 14:33 – “For God is not a God of confusion but of peace. As in all the churches of the saints,”

Galatians 6:9 – “And let us not grow weary of doing good, for in due season we will reap, if we do not give up.”

Ephesians 4:1-32 – “I therefore, a prisoner for the Lord, urge you to walk in a manner worthy of the calling to which you have been called, with all humility and gentleness, with patience, bearing with one another in love, eager to maintain the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace. There is one body and one Spirit—just as you were called to the one hope that belongs to your call— one Lord, one faith, one baptism, ...”

Group 5 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

Romans 12:7 – “If service, in our serving; the one who teaches, in his teaching;

Romans 13:4 – “For he is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain. For he is the servant of God, an avenger who carries out God’s wrath on the wrongdoer.

1 Corinthians 12:4-6 – “Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; and there are varieties of service, but the same Lord; and there are varieties of activities, but it is the same God who empowers them all in everyone.”

John 14:26 – “But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.”

John 14:15 – “If you love me, you will keep my commandments.

1 Timothy 3:8-13 – “Deacons likewise must be dignified, not double-tongued, not addicted to much wine, not greedy for dishonest gain. They must hold the mystery of the faith with a clear conscience. And let them also be tested first; then let them serve as deacons if they prove themselves blameless. Their wives likewise must be dignified, not slanderers, but sober-minded, faithful in all things. Let deacons each be the husband of one wife, managing their children and their own households well. …

Group 6 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

Romans 12:1-21 – “I appeal to you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship. Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect. For by the grace given to me I say to everyone among you not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think with sober judgment, each according to the measure of faith that God has assigned. For as in one body we have many members, and the members do not all have the same function, so we, though many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. …

Acts 6:1-7 – “Now in these days when the disciples were increasing in number, a complaint by the Hellenists arose against the Hebrews because their widows were being neglected in the daily distribution. And the twelve summoned the full number of the disciples and said, “It is not right that we should give up preaching the word of God to serve tables. Therefore, brothers, pick out from among you seven men of good repute, full of the Spirit and of wisdom, whom we will appoint to this duty. But we will devote ourselves to prayer and to the ministry of the word.” And what they said pleased the whole gathering, and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Spirit, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolaus, a proselyte of Antioch. …

Group 7 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

Psalm 46:1 – “To the choirmaster. Of the Sons of Korah. According to Alamoth. A Song. God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.”

Matthew 5:38-39 – “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.’ But I say to you, Do not resist the one who is evil. But if anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.”

1 Peter 2:21 – “For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you might follow in his steps.

Hebrews 13:8 – “Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever.

1 Corinthians 14:26 – “What then, brothers? When you come together, each one has a hymn, a lesson, a revelation, a tongue, or an interpretation. Let all things be done for building up.

2 Timothy 2:2 – “And what you have heard from me in the presence of many witnesses entrust to faithful men who will be able to teach others also.”

Ephesians 3:9 – “And to bring to light for everyone what is the plan of the mystery hidden for ages in God who created all things,”

Romans 12:19Beloved, never avenge yourselves, but leave it to the wrath of God, for it is written, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord.”

Group 8 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

Romans 11:36 – “For from him and through him and to him are all things. To him be glory forever. Amen.”

Romans 16:1-2 – “I commend to you our sister Phoebe, a servant of the church at Cenchreae, that you may welcome her in the Lord in a way worthy of the saints, and help her in whatever she may need from you, for she has been a patron of many and of myself as well.”

2 Timothy 1:7
– “For God gave us a spirit not of fear but of power and love and self-control.”

Acts 20:28 – “Pay careful attention to yourselves and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to care for the church of God, which he obtained with his own blood.”

Galatians 6:6 – “One who is taught the word must share all good things with the one who teaches.

2 Timothy 1:6 – “For this reason I remind you to fan into flame the gift of God, which is in you through the laying on of my hands,

Ephesians 3:5 – “Which was not made known to the sons of men in other generations as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit.

1 Timothy 2:7 – “For this I was appointed a preacher and an apostle (I am telling the truth, I am not lying), a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth.

ALSO READ  What Does It Mean To Be Spiritually Flexible?

Group 9 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

Romans 10:4 – “For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believes.”

2 Corinthians 8:19 – “And not only that, but he has been appointed by the churches to travel with us as we carry out this act of grace that is being ministered by us, for the glory of the Lord himself and to show our good will.”

Luke 10:27And he answered, “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind, and your neighbor as yourself.”

2 Timothy 2:15 – “Do your best to present yourself to God as one approved, a worker who has no need to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth.”

Matthew 10:28 – “And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell.

2 Corinthians 8:19-20 – “And not only that, but he has been appointed by the churches to travel with us as we carry out this act of grace that is being ministered by us, for the glory of the Lord himself and to show our good will. We take this course so that no one should blame us about this generous gift that is being administered by us,

Acts 2:38 – “And Peter said to them, “Repent and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins, and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.

Group 10 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

1 Corinthians 12:4 – “Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit;

John 10:10 – “The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy. I came that they may have life and have it abundantly.”

Exodus 18:21 – “Moreover, look for able men from all the people, men who fear God, who are trustworthy and hate a bribe, and place such men over the people as chiefs of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens.

James 5:14 – “Is anyone among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord.”

James 3:1 – “Not many of you should become teachers, my brothers, for you know that we who teach will be judged with greater strictness.”

1 Peter 4:1-19 – “Since therefore Christ suffered in the flesh, arm yourselves with the same way of thinking, for whoever has suffered in the flesh has ceased from sin, so as to live for the rest of the time in the flesh no longer for human passions but for the will of God. For the time that is past suffices for doing what the Gentiles want to do, living in sensuality, passions, drunkenness, orgies, drinking parties, and lawless idolatry. With respect to this they are surprised when you do not join them in the same flood of debauchery, and they malign you; but they will give account to him who is ready to judge the living and the dead. …

Group 11 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

Ephesians 3:2 – “Assuming that you have heard of the stewardship of God’s grace that was given to me for you,

Romans 15:13 – “May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope.

Romans 16:25 – “Now to him who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery that was kept secret for long ages

Ephesians 3:2 – “Assuming that you have heard of the stewardship of God’s grace that was given to me for you,

Romans 15:13 – “May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, so that by the power of the Holy Spirit you may abound in hope.”

Acts 14:23 – “And when they had appointed elders for them in every church, with prayer and fasting they committed them to the Lord in whom they had believed.”

Romans 8:31 – “What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us?

Romans 12:12 – “Rejoice in hope, be patient in tribulation, be constant in prayer.

John 3:16 – “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life.

Group 12 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

2 Peter 1:21 – “For no prophecy was ever produced by the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.”

Acts 6:1-3 – “Now in these days when the disciples were increasing in number, a complaint by the Hellenists arose against the Hebrews because their widows were being neglected in the daily distribution. And the twelve summoned the full number of the disciples and said, “It is not right that we should give up preaching the word of God to serve tables. Therefore, brothers, pick out from among you seven men of good repute, full of the Spirit and of wisdom, whom we will appoint to this duty.

1 Timothy 5:8 – “But if anyone does not provide for his relatives, and especially for members of his household, he has denied the faith and is worse than an unbeliever.”

Genesis 4:1-26 – “Now Adam knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bore Cain, saying, “I have gotten a man with the help of the Lord.” And again, she bore his brother Abel. Now Abel was a keeper of sheep, and Cain a worker of the ground. In the course of time Cain brought to the Lord an offering of the fruit of the ground, and Abel also brought of the firstborn of his flock and of their fat portions. And the Lord had regard for Abel and his offering, but for Cain and his offering he had no regard. So Cain was very angry, and his face fell. …

Group 13 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

1 Corinthians 13:7 – “Love bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.

1 Corinthians 12:1-14:40 – “Now concerning spiritual gifts, brothers, I do not want you to be uninformed. You know that when you were pagans you were led astray to mute idols, however you were led. Therefore I want you to understand that no one speaking in the Spirit of God ever says “Jesus is accursed!” and no one can say “Jesus is Lord” except in the Holy Spirit. Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit; and there are varieties of service, but the same Lord; …

ALSO READ  Accepting Jesus As Your Lord And Savior

1 Corinthians 12:7-11 – “To each is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good. For to one is given through the Spirit the utterance of wisdom, and to another the utterance of knowledge according to the same Spirit, to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit, to another the working of miracles, to another prophecy, to another the ability to distinguish between spirits, to another various kinds of tongues, to another the interpretation of tongues. All these are empowered by one and the same Spirit, who apportions to each one individually as he wills.”

Group 14 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

1 Corinthians 12:13 – “For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body—Jews or Greeks, slaves or free—and all were made to drink of one Spirit.

Romans 12:3-8 – “For by the grace given to me I say to everyone among you not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think with sober judgment, each according to the measure of faith that God has assigned. For as in one body we have many members, and the members do not all have the same function, so we, though many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. Having gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, let us use them: if prophecy, in proportion to our faith; if service, in our serving; the one who teaches, in his teaching; …

Judges 5:8 – “When new gods were chosen, then war was in the gates. Was shield or spear to be seen among forty thousand in Israel?

John 3:16-17 – “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him.”

1 Peter 5:4 – “And when the chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the unfading crown of glory.”

Philippians 1:1 – “Paul and Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus, To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons:”

Group 15 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

Luke 22:36 – “He said to them, “But now let the one who has a moneybag take it, and likewise a knapsack. And let the one who has no sword sell his cloak and buy one.”

1 Timothy 3:4-5 – “He must manage his own household well, with all dignity keeping his children submissive, for if someone does not know how to manage his own household, how will he care for God’s church?

Exodus 22:2-3 – “If a thief is found breaking in and is struck so that he dies, there shall be no bloodguilt for him, but if the sun has risen on him, there shall be bloodguilt for him. He shall surely pay. If he has nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.”

Proverbs 25:26 – “Like a muddied spring or a polluted fountain is a righteous man who gives way before the wicked.”

Malachi 3:6 – “For I the Lord do not change; therefore you, O children of Jacob, are not consumed.”

Acts 20:17 – “Now from Miletus he sent to Ephesus and called the elders of the church to come to him.”

Revelation 1:1 – “The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show to his servants the things that must soon take place. He made it known by sending his angel to his servant John,”

Ephesians 4:16 – “From whom the whole body, joined and held together by every joint with which it is equipped, when each part is working properly, makes the body grow so that it builds itself up in love.

Group 16 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

Mark 7:1-37 – “Now when the Pharisees gathered to him, with some of the scribes who had come from Jerusalem, they saw that some of his disciples ate with hands that were defiled, that is, unwashed. (For the Pharisees and all the Jews do not eat unless they wash their hands, holding to the tradition of the elders, and when they come from the marketplace, they do not eat unless they wash. And there are many other traditions that they observe, such as the washing of cups and pots and copper vessels and dining couches.) And the Pharisees and the scribes asked him, “Why do your disciples not walk according to the tradition of the elders, but eat with defiled hands?” …

Luke 10:30-37Jesus replied, “A man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who stripped him and beat him and departed, leaving him half dead. Now by chance a priest was going down that road, and when he saw him he passed by on the other side. So likewise a Levite, when he came to the place and saw him, passed by on the other side. But a Samaritan, as he journeyed, came to where he was, and when he saw him, he had compassion. He went to him and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. Then he set him on his own animal and brought him to an inn and took care of him. …

Group 17 – What Does The Bible Say About Administration

Matthew 4:7Jesus said to him, “Again it is written, ‘You shall not put the Lord your God to the test.’”

Matthew 4:1-25Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. And after fasting forty days and forty nights, he was hungry. And the tempter came and said to him, “If you are the Son of God, command these stones to become loaves of bread.” But he answered, “It is written, “‘Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that comes from the mouth of God.’” Then the devil took him to the holy city and set him on the pinnacle of the temple …

Matthew 5:19 – “Therefore whoever relaxes one of the least of these commandments and teaches others to do the same will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever does them and teaches them will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.”

Matthew 26:52-54Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword back into its place. For all who take the sword will perish by the sword. Do you think that I cannot appeal to my Father, and he will at once send me more than twelve legions of angels? But how then should the Scriptures be fulfilled, that it must be so?”

Also Read

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *